MUHARRAM is the first month of the Islamic calendar. Muharram means “Forbidden.” Even before Islam, this month was always known as a scared month in which all unlawful acts were forbidden, prominently the shedding of blood. It is one of the four sanctified months about which Allah Ta’ala says: “The number of months in the sight of Allah are twelve, so ordained by Allah, the day He created the heavens and the earth; Of them four are sacred. That is the correct religion, so wrong not yourselves therein.” (Surah Tawbah – verse 36)
The four sanctified months according to authentic Ahaadeeth are the months of Zul- Qa’dah, Zul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab. The sanctity of these months was observed in the shariah of all the previous Prophets. “Allah Ta’ala made them (i.e. the four months) sacred and increased their sanctity. Hence He declared a sin therein more severe and increased the virtue of good deeds and the reward thereof.” (Ibn Katheer Vol.2)
The best of fasts besides the month of Ramadhaan is the fast during Allah’s month of Muharram and the best of Salaah besides the Faraaidh (obligatory salaah) is the Tahajjud Salaah (performed after midnight). (Muslim,Vol. 1)
THE DAY OF AASHURAH( 10 TH OF MUHARRAM)
The Tenth of Muharram, known as the day of Aashura, is a very significant day in the Islamic Calendar. Nabi(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) has exhorted the Ummah to fast on this day. Hadhrat Aaisha(rahiyallahu anha) reports that Nabi(sallallahu alaiyhi wassallam) ordered the observance of the fast of Aashura.