PROPHET MUHAMMAD (peace be upon him) stayed in Makkah calling the people of his hometown to the message of Allah for 13 years and the number of people who embraced Islam did not exceed 70. The Prophet (peace be upon him) suffered a lot at the hands of his people who rejected the new religion, in spite of its noble and uplifting values. During that initial phase of Islam, Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was fully occupied with instilling the idea of monotheism or the Oneness of God in his people’s minds.
When the Prophet (peace be upon him) migrated to Madina where he (peace be upon him) spent 10 years of his life, that are truly considered the most profitable and fruitful ones in the history of Islam. As soon as he settled in Madina, the Prophet (peace be upon him) started to work for establishing the Muslim state. If we deeply study the foundations upon which Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) established this state, we will discover that it was a modern state in the full sense of the word:

• When the Prophet (peace be upon him) arrived in Madina, he started building a mosque first to serve as the parliament for the nascent Muslim state. In other words, it was not only a place of worship but a place for discussing and reviewing all the matters related to the general good of Muslims and Islam.

• The second step taken by Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was to effect a reconciliation between Aws and Khazraj, the two most powerful tribes of Madina. This is what is called nowadays in political circles as establishing social peace and political stability.

• The third step was to sign non-aggression treaties with the Jews which in the present terminology is called establishing and fostering good neighborliness. But, unfortunately, the Jews, as usual, violated the treaty which made Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) expel them from Madina to keep their mischief away from the new-born Muslim state and this is what is called today political shrewdness.

• The Prophet (peace be upon him) established the principle of Shoura (Consultation). He (peace be upon him) used to consult his Companions to seek their views on all matters of importance, giving everybody the chance to present his or her point of view. He never hesitated to accept and act on any reasonable point of view, in spite of the fact that it might be contrary to his own view. This is what we call today the democratic spirit and public opinion polls.

• The Noble Prophet (peace be upon him) was deeply concerned about equality. He emphasized on many occasions that all Muslims regardless of their color, race, wealth and social status are equal and this accomplished what we call today as human rights.

• The Prophet (peace be upon him) always emphasized the positive role of women in building the Muslim society and always stressed that her role is as important as that of man, and this is what we have come to call today women’s rights or women’s empowerment.