Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu’s) real name was Abdullah, and he was given the title of “As Siddique” or”Testifier to the Truth.” His father, ‘Uthman, was known as Abu Quhafah and his mother, Salma, was known as Ummul Khair. He was two and a half years younger than Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
He was the first among the Sahaba to accept Islam. He accompanied Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) during the Hijrah to Madinatul Munawwarah. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was a merchant. He freed many slaves, including Sayyiduna Bilal (radi Allahu anhu) and Sayyiduna Umayyah bin Qahaf (radi Allahu anhu). He participated in all the battles in which Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had to fight the Kuffar.
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) loved his faith more than anything else. At the Battle of Badr, his son, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu), was fighting on the side of the Kuffar. After accepting Islam, Sayyiduna Abdur Rahman (radi Allahu anhu) said to his father, “O Father, at Badr, you were twice under my sword, but my love for you held my hand back.” To this, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) replied, “Son, if I had you only once under my sword, you would have been no more.” He was so uncompromising in his faith.
At the time of the Battle of Tabuk, he donated all his wealth to the war effort, and when Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) asked him, “What have you left for your family,?” he replied, “Allah and His Rasool (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).”
As A Caliph
After his election as the Caliph, Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) addressed the Muslims with these words:
“O People! I have been chosen by you as your leader, although I am no better than any of you. If I do any wrong, set me right. Listen, truth is honesty and untruth is dishonesty. The weak among you are the powerful in my eyes, as long as I do not give them their dues. The powerful among you are weak in my eyes, as long as I do not take away from them what is due to others.
“Listen carefully, if people give up striving for the Cause of Almighty Allah, He will send down disgrace upon them. If people become evil-doers, Almighty Allah will send down calamities upon them.
“Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Rasul (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam). If I disobey Allah and His Rasul (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam), you are free to disobey me.”
Such was the first Caliph of Islam. Indeed, the world would be a better place to live in, if we had leaders like Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu).
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) now sent Sayyiduna Usamah (radi Allahu anhu) on the expedition to Syria to fight the Romans, even though he had to attend to all the internal problems of the Islamic State.
The news that Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam) had passed away, made some new Muslims think that the Islamic State would crumble and they refused to pay the Zakaah. These new Muslims could not yet get used to their faith and its requirements until then. Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) declared, “By Allah! Even if a single thread is due from a man, he must give it. If he refuses, I will declare war against him.”
Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) fell ill at this time and passed away on the 21st of Jamadi-ul-Aakhir 13 A.H. (22 August 634). His rule lasted 2 years and 3 months. He was 63 years old.
One of the many contributions of Sayyiduna Abu Bakr (radi Allahu anhu) was the collection and compilation of the Holy Quran.
He lived a very simple, pious and upright life. He was a true servant of Almighty Allah and a meticulous follower of Sayyiduna Rasulullah (sallal laahu alaihi wasallam).
He wore ordinary clothes and his meals were very simple. He attended to house-hold work and would go out at night and seek the poor and destitute. Humility and modesty were the keynotes of his character. He felt embarrassed when people showered praises on him or showed him immense respect. He often fasted during the day and spent the whole night in Salaah and meditation. He was a great orator and a master of genealogy (one who can trace a person’s family line). In personal life, he was a Saint. He used all his powers to promote the interest of Islam and the good of people.
In these blessed days, the month of Ramadan, we remember the battle of Badr, which took place in the seventeenth of Ramadan, the second year of Hijrah. The battle plays a great role in the Islamic history as it was to determine the destiny of worshiping Allah on earth, and it was the first of a series of battles later. Muslims were not ready for such a war, they were only three hundreds and thirteen fighters, armed with a few weapons, seventy camels and two horses whereas the disbelievers were nine hundreds and fifty, armed with many weapons, seven hundreds camels, and hundred horses. Yet, Muslims decided to go for the battle with great persistence.
One could wonder how did those Muslims were encouraged to battle in such a critical situation and without hesitation?
It is sincere faith, relying on Allah and entrusting matters to Him. They turned to Allah for aid, implored Him with deep trust that He would never disappoint them. Allah who never break His promise, sent them angels to fight alongside them and it was a great victory.
Achieving victory in war needs preparation, well training and providing weapons, such causes of victory have to be well regarded by Muslims with complete reliance on Allah ,Lord of the Universe. Yet there are other causes that man can not interfere in, but are only caused by the Divine Decree, like weather conditions, rain, snow wind, and cloud; all this has great effect on the warfare Besides, men’s hearts are in the hands of their Creator; that’s faith is an essential key to victory, but it is controlled by Allah [swt]. Faith is the only factor lacked by the West. Muslims have to fill their hearts with faith, turn back to the path of Allah Almighty, and apply His law on earth.
People came to the door of Umar Bin Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him). Among them were Suhail Bin ‘Amr, Abu Sufyan Bin Harb and other chiefs of Quraish.
Umar went to let the people in and he began by giving permission to the people of Badr first (i.e. those who participated in the Battle of Badr), to the likes of Suhaib, Bilal and others from Ahl Al-Badr.
By Allah, Umar himself was a Badri, and he loved them and advised others regarding them. So Abu Sufyan said, “I have never seen the like of today before! He gives permission to slaves like these while we sit here and he does not even look at us?!”
So, Suhail Bin Amr (who himself was a notable among Quraish) said, “O people, by Allah, I can see what has come over your faces. If you are angry, then only be angry over your own selves.
The people were called (to Islam) and you were also called, they hastened to respond but you were slow. By Allah, what they have preceded you in of virtue, in matters that you don’t know, is more of a loss than your competition here in front of this door.”
Then he said, “O people, these people have succeeded you in what you can see, and so by Allah, there is no way for you to attain what they have succeeded you in.
Look to this matter of Jihad and adhere to it so that perhaps you may be granted martyrdom.” Then (Suhail) took hold of his garment and went off to Al-Sham (Greater Syria).
Al-Hasan said, “By Allah he was truthful. Allah will never allow a slave who hastens to Him, to be equal to a slave who is slow.” (Abdullah Bin Mubarak, Kitab Al-Jihad, no. 100, pg. 32)
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 4:51, Narrated Abu Huraira
The Prophet said, “A place in Paradise as small as the bow or lash of one of you is better than all the world and whatever is in it”
The Noble Qur’an – Al-Mu’minun 23:8-11
Those who are faithfully true to their trusts and to their covenants; And those who strictly guard their (five compulsory congregational) prayers (at their fixed stated hours). These are indeed the inheritors. Who shall inherit the Firdaus (Paradise). They shall dwell therein forever.
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 4:569, Narrated Abu Huraira
Then Allah [swt] will say (to him): ‘I have forbidden Paradise for the disbelievers.’
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 6:373, Narrated Abu Huraira
The Prophet said, “Paradise and the Fire (Hell) argued, and the Fire (Hell) said, ‘I have been given the privilege of receiving the arrogant and the tyrants.’ Paradise said, ‘What is the matter with me? Why do only the weak and the humble among the people enter me?’ On that, Allah said to Paradise, ‘You are My Mercy which I bestow on whoever I wish of my servants.’ Then Allah said to the (Hell) Fire, ‘You are my (means of) punishment by which I punish whoever I wish of my slaves. And each of you will have its fill.’ As for the Fire (Hell), it will not be filled till Allah puts His Foot over it whereupon it will say, ‘Qati! Qati!’ At that time it will be filled, and its different parts will come closer to each other; and Allah will not wrong any of His created beings. As regards Paradise, Allah will create a new creation to fill it with.”
Descriptions of Paradise
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 4:474, Narrated Anas bin Malik , see also Bukhari 6:403, Quran 56:30
The Prophet said, “There is a tree in Paradise (which is so big and huge that) if a rider travels in its shade for one hundred years, he would not be able to cross it.”
Hadith – Mishkat, Narrator AbuHurayrah , transmitted by Tirmidhi and Darimi
Allah’s Messenger said, “The inhabitants of Paradise are hairless, beardless and have black eyes, their youth does not pass away and their garments do not wear out.”
Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 4:479, Narrated Sahl bin Sad
The Prophet said, “Paradise has eight gates, and one of them is called Ar-Raiyan through which none will enter but those who observe fasting.” The Prophet also said, “If a person spends two different kinds of something (for Allah’s cause), he will be called from the gates of Paradise.”
The Battle of Badr took place on the seventeenth of Ramadan, two years after Prophet Muhammad’s (peace be upon him) Hijrah (emigration) to Madina. Here’s more information about the battle, which was the first armed conflict that the Muslims were ever engaged in.
- The Muslims went out of Madina to investigate a caravan which was returning to Makkah from Syria, not intending to engage in battle. The caravan escaped, but its leader Abu Sufyan managed to send word to Makkah, asking for forces to come and protect the caravan.
- The Makkan tribes marched with an enormous army of 1,000 men, 100 horses, and 700 camels, and luxurious provisions to last for several days, while the Muslims numbered 313 ill-equipped men on 70 camels and a few horses.
- Led by the Prophet (pbuh), the Muslims marched forward and at the suggestion of a companion, Hubab Bin Mundhir, encamped south on the nearest water well, restricting the Makkans’ access to water.
- The Battle of Badr is one of the few battles explicitly mentioned in the Qur’an: “And Allah has already made you victorious at Badr, when you were a weak little force. So fear Allah much that you may be grateful.” Qur’an: 3:123
- Many important Makkan leaders were killed or taken prisoner in this battle, the most noteworthy of whom was Abu Jahl, the archenemy of Islam. The Battle of Badr strengthened the Muslims’ status in Arabia as a strong force and consolidated the Muslims’ faith.