Prophethood in Islam has a special status and significance. According to Islam, Allah created man for a noble purpose: to worship Him and lead a virtuous life based on His teachings and guidance. How would man know the role and purpose of his existence unless he received clear and practical instructions of what Allah wants him to do? Here comes the need for prophethood. Thus Allah had chosen from every nation a prophet or more to convey His Message to people. One might ask: How were the prophets chosen and who were entitled to this great honor? Prophethood is Allah’s blessing and favor that He may bestow on whom He wills. However, from surveying the various messengers throughout history, three features of a prophet may be recognized:
1 . He is the best in his community morally and intellectually. This is necessary because a prophet’s life serves as a model for his followers. His personality should attract people to accept his message rather than drive them away by his imperfect character. After receiving the message he is infallible.
2. He is supported by miracles to prove that he is not an impostor. Those miracles are granted by the power and permission of God and are usually in the field in which his people excel and are recognized as superiors. We might illustrate this by quoting the major miracles of the three prophets of the major world religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Moses’ contemporaries excelled in magic. So his major miracle was to defeat the best magicians of Egypt of his days. Jesus’ contemporaries were recognized as skillful physicians. Therefore, his miracles were to raise the dead and cure incurable diseases. The Arabs, the contemporaries of the Prophet Muhammad, were known for their eloquence and magnificent poetry. So Prophet Muhammad’s major miracle was the Qur’an, the equivalent of which the whole legion of Arab poets and orators could not produce despite the repeated challenge from the Qur’an itself.
Again Muhammad’s miracle has something special about it. All previous miracles were limited by time and place, i.e., they were shown to specific people at a specific time. Not so the miracle of Muhammad, the Qur’an. It is a universal and everlasting miracle.
Previous generations witnessed it and future generations will witness its miraculous nature in terms of its style, content, and spiritual upliftment. These still can be tested and will thereby prove the divine origin of the Qur’an.
3. Every prophet states clearly that what he receives is not of his own but from God for the well-being of mankind. He also confirms what was revealed before him and what may be revealed after him.
A prophet does this to show that he is simply conveying the message which is entrusted to him by the One True God of all people of all ages. So the message is one in essence and for the same purpose.
Therefore, it should not deviate from what was revealed before him or what might come after him. Prophets are necessary for conveying God’s instructions and guidance to mankind. We have no way of knowing why we were created. What will happen to us after death? Is there any life after death? Are we accountable for our actions? In other words, is there any reward or punishment for our deeds in this life? These and so many other questions about God, angels, paradise, hell, etc. cannot be answered without revelation from the Creator and All-Knower of the unseen.
Those answers must be authentic and must be brought by individuals whom we trust and respect.
That is why messengers are the select of their societies in terms of moral conduct and intellectual ability.