ONE: The prevention of knowledge: Knowledge is a light that Allah throws into the heart and disobedience extinguishes this light.
Imaam Shaafi’ee (rahimahullah) said: “I complained to Wakee’ about the weakness of my memory, so he ordered me to abandon disobedience. And informed me that the knowledge is light. And that the light of Allah is not given to the disobedient. ”
TWO: The prevention of sustenance: Just as Taqwaa brings about sustenance, the abandonment of Taqwaa causes poverty. There is nothing that can bring about sustenance like the abandonment of disobedience.
THREE: The prevention of obedience (to Allah): If there was no other punishment for sin other than that it prevents one from obedience to Allah then this would be sufficient.
FOUR: Disobedience weakens the heart and the body: It’s weakening the heart is something that is clear. Disobedience does not stop weakening it until the life of the heart ceases completely.
FIVE: Disobedience reduces the lifespan and destroys any blessings: Just as righteousness increases the lifespan, sinning reduces it.
SIX: Disobedience ows its own seeds and gives birth to itself until separating from it and coming out of it becomes difficult for the servant.
SEVEN: Sins weaken the hearts will and resolve so that the desire for disobedience becomes strong and the desire to repent becomes weak bit by bit until the desire to repent is removed from the heart completely.
EIGHT: Every type of disobedience is a legacy of a nation from among the nations which Allah Azzawajall destroyed. Sodomy is a legacy of the People of Lot, taking more than one’s due right and giving what is less is a legacy of the People of Shu’ayb, seeking greatness in the land and causing corruption is a legacy of the People of Pharoah and pride/arrogance and tyranny is a legacy of the People of Hud. So the disobedient one is wearing the gown of some of these nations who were the enemies of Allah.
NINE: Disobedience is a cause of the servant being held in contempt by his Lord. Al-Hasan al-Basree (rahimahullah) said: They became contemptible in (His sight) so they disobeyed Him. If they were honorable (in His sight) He would have protected them. Allah the Exalted said:
“And whomsoever Allah lowers (humiliates) there is none to give honor.” [Hajj 22:18]
TEN: The ill-effects of the sinner fall upon those besides him and also the animals as a result of which they are touched by harm.
ELEVEN: The servant continues to commit sins until they become very easy for him and seem insignificant in his heart and this is a sign of destruction. Every time a sin becomes insignificant in the sight of the servant it becomes great in the sight of Allah.
Ibn Mas’ood (radiy Allahu anhu) said: Indeed, the believer sees his sins as if he was standing at the foot of a mountain fearing that it will fall upon him and the sinner sees his sins like a fly which passes by his nose so he tries to remove it by waving his hand around. [Bukhaaree]
TWELVE: Disobedience inherits humiliation and lowliness. Honor, all of it, lies in the obedience of Allah. Abdullaah ibn al-Mubaarak said:
“I have seen sins kill the hearts. And humiliation is inherited by their continuity The abandonment of sins gives life to the hearts. And the prevention of your soul is better for it.”
THIRTEEN: Disobedience corrupts the intellect. The intellect has light and disobedience extinguishes this light. When the light of the intellect is extinguished it becomes weak and deficient.
FOURTEEN: When disobedience increases, the servant’s heart becomes sealed so that he becomes of those who are heedless. The Exalted said:
“But no! A stain has been left on their hearts on account of what they used to earn (i.e. their actions).” [Mutaffifeen 83:14]
FIFTEEN: Sins cause various types of corruption to occur in the land. Corruption of the waters, the air, the plants, the fruits and the dwelling places. The Exalted said:
“Mischief has appeared on the land and the sea on account of what the hands of men have earned; that He may give them a taste of some of (the actions) they have done, in order that they may return.” [Rum 30:41]
SIXTEEN: The disappearance of modesty which is the essence of the life of the heart and is the basis of every good. Its disappearance is the disappearance of all that is good. It is authentic from the Messenger (sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he said: Modesty is goodness, all of it [Bukhaaree and Muslim] A Poet said:
“And by Allah, there is no good in life or in the world when modesty goes.”
SEVENTEEN: Sins weaken and reduce the magnification of Allah, the Mighty in the heart of the servant
EIGHTEEN: Sins are the cause of Allah forgetting His servant, abandoning him, and leaving him to fend for himself with his soul and his Shaytaan, and in this is the destruction from which no deliverance can be hoped for.
NINETEEN: Sins remove the servant from the realm of Ihsaan (doing good) and he is prevented from (obtaining) the reward of those who do good. When Ihsaan fills the heart it prevents it from disobedience.
TWENTY: Disobedience causes the favors (of Allah) to cease and make His revenge lawful. No blessing ceases to reach a servant except due to a sin and no retribution is made lawful upon him except due to a sin. Alee (radiy Allahu ‘anhu) said: No trial has descended except due to a sin and it (the trial) is not repelled except by repentance. Allah the Exalted said:
“Whatever misfortune afflicts you then it is due to what your hands have earned and (yet) He pardons many.” [Shura 42:30]
And the Exalted also said: “That is because never will Allah change the favor He has bestowed on a people until they change what is with themselves..” [Anfaal 8:53]
Imaam Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyyah
Source: From his Book Al-Jawaab al-Kaafee
While many of us remember to supplicate to Allah for guidance, knowledge, and Paradise, there is one important thing that we forget to include in our prayers. In a narration that many of us are familiar with, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Unquestionably, in the body, there is a lump of flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart.” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
Countless scholars of Islam have dedicated books upon books to reformation and purification of the heart because it is the key to success or destruction. Just as doctors today tell us that having a healthy heart is the key to having a healthy body, the Prophet (peace be upon him) conveys to us that having a good heart is the key to righteousness.
Anas narrated that asking for a firm and obedient heart was one of the constant supplications of the Prophet (peace be upon him); and one narration from Umm Salamah states that the Du’a he made the most was: “Allahumma ya Muqallib Al-Quloob thabbit qalbi ‘alaa Deenik,” which means, “O Turner of the hearts, make my heart firm upon Your Religion.”
There is, however, another authentic Du’a narrated in Sahih Muslim that isn’t as well-known: “Allahumma Musarrif Al-Quloobi Sarrif Quloobana ‘Ala Ta’atika,” which means, “O Allah, Turner of the hearts, direct our hearts to Your obedience.”
Selected words analysis
Musarrif/Sarrif: Both these words come from the same root, which has many meanings such as, to turn, to divert, to turn from another direction, to avert, and to change. The meaning of this word in this Du’a is to turn or direct. How is this word different from “Muqallib Al-Quloob?” There are a few linguistic differences, but the essence of both supplications is the same. Qallaba, just like Sarrafa, means to change and turn the direction of something.
The linguistic difference is that Qallaba points more to constant moving and turning about, while Sarrafa points to changing of the direction. When we make this Du’a, we are asking Allah to Sarrif (turn and direct) our hearts to His Obedience, while in the other Du’a, we are asking Allah to Thabbit, i.e. make our hearts firm on Islam, and not Qallib because the heart is constantly changing about and turning directions.
Quloob: Quloob is plural of Qalb which means the heart. Qalb is the general word for heart. It comes from the root which means something that turns around and about and upside down, as mentioned above. It is the nature of hearts that they are constantly changing.
Ta’atika: Ta’ah means to obey and to submit. The beauty of this word is that it not only means to submit one’s self, it specifically means to submit willingly, voluntarily, and on one’s own free will. We are asking Allah to direct our hearts to willingly submit and obey Him.
Points of benefit
Supplications regarding the heart are found both in the Qur’an and Sunnah. In the Qur’an, the believers supplicate, “Our Lord, let not our hearts deviate after You have guided us.” (Qur’an, 3:8) Also in Surah Hashr, “And (there is a share for) those who came after them, saying, “Our Lord, forgive us and our brothers who preceded us in faith and put not in our hearts (any) resentment toward those who have believed.” (Qur’an, 59:10) Both of these Du’as are seeking refuge in Allah from corrupted hearts. The first Du’a seeks refuge from deviation after guidance, and the second from evil and ill-feelings towards fellow Muslims.
• The Prophet (peace be upon him) constantly made Du’a for a righteous and good heart. We learn from this the status of the heart and that we too should supplicate as much as we can for an obedient and a heart standing firm upon Islam.
• The nature of the heart is to constantly change, and asking Allah to direct our hearts to His Obedience shows that we are constantly falling short in our obedience to Him. By this Du’a, we ask Allah to keep turning our hearts back to His Obedience as we are prone to falter.
• Scholars like Imam Ibn Qayyim and Ibn Uthaymeen state that the intelligence and the understanding of a human lie in the heart, and not necessarily the brain. Their evidence for this statement is the verse, “So have they not traveled through the earth and have hearts by which to reason and ears by which to hear? For indeed, it is not eyes that are blinded, but blinded are the hearts which are within the chests.” (Qur’an, 22:46) Sheikh Ibn Uthaymeen says the brain is like a secretary who processes information, but it is the heart that decides to do good or evil based on that information.
• The heart is the foundation. We must purify our hearts from associating partners with Allah, from Bid’ah, from ill feelings against our fellow Muslims, and other evil deeds in our character and our theology. The Muslim should focus on the reformation of his heart as well as the accumulation of good deeds. The heart is the source of good deeds. It will be tested on the Day of Judgment. Allah says, “Knows he not that when the contents of the graves are brought out and poured forth (all mankind is resurrected). And that which is in the breasts (of men) shall be made known. Verily, that Day (i.e. the Day of Resurrection) their Lord will be Well-Acquainted with them (as to their deeds), (and will reward them for their deeds). (Qur’an, 100:9-11).”
• In another Hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) pointed to his heart and said three times, “Taqwa (consciousness and fear of Allah) is here.” (Musnad Ahmad) This Hadith shows us that when the heart fears Allah, then the limbs will follow, just as the first Hadith narrated that, “If it is sound (the heart), the whole body is sound.”
• This Du’a is a constant reminder for us that we are not in control of our guidance. It is crucial for us to make Du’a for our hearts on a regular basis because we do not know what the condition of our hearts will be tomorrow. The hearts of the children of Adam are between the two fingers of Allah, He turns them to any (direction) He likes. So, who else can we turn to than Musarrif Al-Quloob to keep our hearts towards the direction of His obedience?
Before you read this article one very important and basic feature which everyone must understand clearly.
ALLAH HAS MADE JANNAT HARAAM FOR MUSHRIKS.
Read the verse from Quran
“Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire”
All praise is due to Almighty Allah, who made us human beings and bestowed on us many of His Blessings and Mercy. All of us know the faith in Allah, belief in all His Books, His angels, His Messengers good deeds, etc. lead to heaven, and unbelief and evil deeds lead to Hell. In this book, only a few of the good deeds are mentioned which lead people to paradise by Allah’s Mercy, provided they do not associate any partners with Allah. “Indeed, he who associates others with Allah – Allah has forbidden him Paradise, and his refuge is the Fire”(Al-Maida 5/72). The reality of Paradise is something which people will never be able to understand until they actually enter it, but Allah Subhana wa Ta’la has given us glimpses (hints) of it in the Quran.
Who Is Eligible For Entry Into Paradise:
I have listed in 28 categories
The Prophet (PBUH) said, “The most common thing which leads people to Paradise is (1) taqwa (piety) or fear of Allah and (2) good conduct, and the most common thing which leads people to the Hell Fire is the mouth and the private parts.” [Tirmidhi].
Since the paradise has most of the people who have taqwa in them, I will give an explanation of Taqwa, and who are “Al-Muttaqun ” (believing and pious people), Al-muttaqun are the people who are from mominoun. What is Taqwa? (Self-control, holdback, restraint, self-discipline, etc) “Surely those of taqwa shall be in the midst of Gardens and fountains.” [Surah 15:45] [see also Surah 9/111, 2/82]
Paradise: There Is Nothing Like It “No person knows what is kept hidden for them of joy, as a reward for what they used to do.” (Surah As’-Sajda 32:17)
Who is the first person to enter in Paradise? (Think! Has anyone told you or did you read anywhere?) Anas b. Malik (RA) reported: The Messenger of Allah may peace be upon him) said: I will come to the gate of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection. and would seek its opening. and the keeper would say: Who are you?
I would say, Muhammad. He would then say: It is for you that I have been ordered, and not to open it for anyone before you. (Muslim 1/384)
Allah (Subhana wa ta’la) gives good tidings of His infinite(countless, unlimited) Mercy and grant of Paradise to many many kinds of people (who are not involved in Shirk) only a few categories of people are presented here.
(1) Those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah” and “Stand firm (remained on a right course)”
Indeed, those who have said, “Our Lord is Allah” and then remained on a right course – the angels will descend upon them, [saying], “Do not fear and do not grieve but receive good tidings of Paradise, which you were promised. We [angels] were your allies in worldly life and [are so] in the Hereafter. And you will have therein whatever your souls desire, and you will have therein whatever you request [or wish]. As accommodation from a [Lord who is] Forgiving and Merciful.” (Surah Ha-Mim or Fussilat 41/30-32)
(2) He who professed (admitted, confessed, acknowledged): There is no god but Allah
Anas b. Malik (RA) reported: Verily the Apostle (may peace be upon him) said: He who professed: There is no god but Allah, would be brought out of the Fire even though he has in his heart virtue equal to the weight of a barley grain. Then he who professed: There is no god but Allah, would come out of the Fire, even though he has in his heart virtue equal to the weight of a wheat grain. He would then bring out from the Fire he who professed: There is no god but Allah, even though he has in his heart virtue equal to the weight of an atom. (Muslim Book1/376)
(3) Any believer who does righteous deeds
And whoever does righteous deeds, whether male or female, while being a believer – those will enter Paradise and will not be wronged, [even as much as] the speck on a date seed. (Surah4/124)
What is Taqwa?
(Self-control, holdback, restraint, self-discipline, etc )
Scholars gave many meanings of Taqwa for example
- Have faith in Allah, fear & love Allah, and expect good from Him.
- Keep away from Shirk and major sins
- Don’t go near indecency, each time to be very careful let Allah does not become unhappy by our actions and deeds.
- Adopt the habit of righteousness, and good deeds, Al-muttaqun are the people who
- Do not kill anyone without valid reason as guided by Allah (Surah Al-Ma’eda 5/23)
- Participate in Jehad with their lives and money for the sake of Allah. (At’-Tauba or Bara’at 9/36,44)
- Seek the help of Allah and have patience (Al-A’araf 7/128)
(4) Eight Gates of Paradise
(1) Gate of Jihaad-Those who martyred and sacrificed their lives in the defense of Islam(jihad) will be granted entry through this door.
(2) Gate of Salaat (Prayer) Baab As’-Salaat
(3) Gate of Ar’-Rayyaan (for fasting people)Baab Ar’-Rayyaan
(4) Gate of Charity- Baab As’-Sadaqa
(5) Gate of Hajis-Bab Al-Hajj
(6) Gate of Aymen (Right-hand gate) Baab Al-Iman
(7) Baab Al-Kaazimeen Al-Ghaiz Wal Aafina Anin Naas. This door is reserved for those who control their anger and
(8) Baab Al-Dhikr -Those who constantly remembered Allah (dhikr) will be admitted through this door.)
Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d (RA): The Prophet(PBUH) said, “Paradise has eight gates, and one of them is called Ar-Raiyan through which none will enter but those who observe fasting.” The Prophet(PBUH) said, “If a person spends two different kinds of something (for Allah’s Cause), he will be called from the gates of Paradise.”
(5) Whoever builds a mosque- Allah builds a house for him in Paradise like it
Mahmud b. Labid reported that ‘Uthman b. ‘Affan decided to rebuild the mosque (of Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) in Medina) but the people did not like this idea and they wished that it should be preserved in the same (old) form. Thereupon he (Syyadina ‘Uthman R.A.) said: I heard Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) as saying: He who builds a mosque for Allah, Allah would build for him (a house) in Paradise like it.
(6) One who behaves well and kind with his neighbors
‘A’isha (RA)reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: Gabriel impressed upon me (kind treatment) towards the neighbor (so much) that I thought as if he would confer upon him the (right) of inheritance. (Muslim Bk 32, Number 6354)
(7) Righteous (Muttaqun) who fear Allah
Indeed, the righteous will be in a secure place: Within gardens and springs (Surah 44/51-52)
(8) Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (PBUH)
And whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger – He will admit him to gardens beneath which rivers flow, but whoever turns away – He will punish him with a painful punishment. (Surah Al-Fat-h 48/17)
(9) Serve Parents and Earn Jannah (Hakim, Baihaqi)
(10) One who keeps good relations with his relatives
Narrated Abu Aiyub: A man said to the Prophet(PBUH) “Tell me of such a deed as will make me enter Paradise.” The people said, “What is the matter with him? What is the matter with him?” The Prophet(PBUH) said, “He has something to ask. (What he needs greatly) The Prophet(PBUH) said: (In order to enter Paradise) you should worship Allah and do not ascribe any partners to Him, offer prayer perfectly, pay the Zakat and keep good relations with your Kith and kin.” (See Hadith No. 12, Vol 8). (Bukhari 2/479)
(11) One who makes excessive prostrations
Rabi’a b. Ka’b said: I was with Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) one night. and I brought him water and what he required. He said to me: Ask (anything you like). I said: I ask your company in Paradise. He (the Holy Prophet(PBUH)) said: Or anything else besides it. I said: That is all (what I require). He said: Then help me to achieve this for you by devoting yourself often to prostration. (Muslim 4/0990)
(12) One who replies to the call of Adhan
‘Umar b. al-Khattab reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: When the Mu’adhdhin says: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, and one of you should make this response: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest; (and when the Mu’adhdhin) says: I testify that there is no god but Allah, one should respond: I testify that there is no god but Allah, and when he says: I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, one should make a response: I testify that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Come to prayer, one should make a response: There is no might and no power except with Allah. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Come to salvation, one should respond:
There is no might and no power except with Allah, and when he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, then make a response: Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest. When he (the Mu’adhdhin) says: There is no god but Allah, and he who makes a response from the heart: There is no god but Allah, he will enter Paradise. (Muslim 4/0478)
(13) One who by-hearted the 99 names of Allah, believes in their meanings and acts accordingly
Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): Allah has ninety-nine Names, i.e., one hundred minus one, and whoever believes in their meanings and acts accordingly, will enter Paradise; and Allah is witr (one) and loves ‘the witr’ (i.e., odd numbers) (Bukhari 8/419)
(14) One who recites Sayyidul Istighfar with firm faith in it, in the morning and evening
Narrated Shaddad bin ‘Aus: The Prophet(PBUH) said, “The most superior way of asking for forgiveness from Allah is: ‘O Allah, You are my Lord, none has the right to be worshiped except You, You created me and I am Your servant and I abide to Your covenant and promise [to honor it] as best I can, I take refuge in You from the evil of which I committed. I acknowledge Your favor upon me and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive me, for verily none can forgive sins except You.’
The Prophet(PBUH) added, “If somebody recites it during the day with firm faith in it and dies on the same day before the evening, he will be from the people of Paradise and if somebody recites it at night with firm faith in it and dies before the morning he will be from the people of Paradise.” (Bukhari 8/335)
(15) Any person will enter Paradise only when Allah S.W.T bestows His pardon, Favor, and Mercy
Narrated Abu Huraira (RA): I heard Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) saying, “The good deeds of any person will not make him enter Paradise.” (i.e., None can enter Paradise through his good deeds.) They (the Prophet’s companions) said, ‘Not even you, O Allah’s Apostle-‘ He said, “Not even me unless Allah bestows His favor and mercy on me.” So be moderate in your religious deeds do the deeds that are within your ability: and none of you should wish for death, for if he is a good doer, he may increase his good deeds, and if he is an evildoer, he may repent to Allah.” (Bukhari 7/577)
(16) One who has faith in Allah
Narrated Haritha bin Wahb: Al-Khuza`i: The Prophet(PBUH) said, “Shall I inform you about the people of Paradise? They comprise every obscure unimportant humble person, and if he takes Allah’s Oath that he will do that thing, Allah will fulfill his oath (by doing that). Shall I inform you about the people of the Fire? They comprise every cruel, violent, proud, and conceited person.” Anas bin Malik(RA) said, “Any of the female slaves of Medina could take hold of the hand of Allah’s Apostle and take him wherever she wished.” (Bukhari 8/97) (see also Bukhari 7.648)
(17) When 4 or even 3 people testify “the piety of a Muslim” will enter Paradise
Narrated Abu Al-Aswad: I came to Medina when an epidemic had broken out. While I was sitting with `Umar bin Al-Khattab a funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. `Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” And another funeral procession passed by and the people praised the deceased. `Umar said, “It has been affirmed to him.” A third (funeral procession) passed by and the people spoke badly of the deceased. He said, “It has been affirmed to him.” I (Abu Al-Aswad) asked, “O chief of the believers! What has been affirmed?” He replied, “I said the same as the Prophet(PBUH) had said, that is: if four persons testify the piety of a Muslim, Allah will grant him Paradise.” We asked, “If three persons testify his piety?” He (the Prophet) replied, “Even three.” Then we asked, “If two?” He replied, “Even two.” We did not ask him regarding one witness. (Bukhari 2/449)
(18) Whoever gives chastity of his tongue and his private parts
Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d: Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) said, “Whoever can guarantee (the chastity of) what is between his two jaw-bones and what is between his two legs (i.e. his tongue and his private parts), I guarantee Paradise for him.”
(19) Truthful Person
Allah will say, “This is the Day when the truthful will benefit from their truthfulness.” For them are gardens [in Paradise] beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever, Allah being pleased with them, and they with Him. That is the great attainment. (Surah Al-Ma’idah 5/119)
(20) O reassured soul, Return to your Lord, well-pleased and pleasing…Enter My Paradise
[To the righteous it will be said], “O reassured soul, Return to your Lord, well-pleased and pleasing [to Him], And enter among My [righteous] servants. And enter My Paradise.” (Surah 89/27-30)
(21) Forty virtuous deeds
Narrated `Abdullah bin `Amr: That Allah’s Apostle (PBUH) said, “There are forty virtuous deeds and the best of them is the Maniha of a she-goat, and anyone who does one of these virtuous deeds hoping for Allah’s reward with firm confidence that he will get it, then Allah will make him enter Paradise because of Hassan (a sub-narrator) said, “We tried to count those good deeds below the Maniha; we mentioned replying to the sneezer, removing harmful things from the road, etc., but we failed to count even fifteen.” (Bukhari 3/800)
(22) Paradise is the reward of a patient person
“Peace [i.e., security] be upon you for what you patiently endured. And excellent is the final home.” ( Surah Ar-Ra’d 13/24)
(23) Three inmates of Paradise
The inmates of Paradise are three: One who wields (executes) authority and is just and fair, one who Is truthful and has been endowed with the power to do good deeds. And the person who is merciful and kind-hearted towards his relatives and to every pious Muslim, and one who does not stretch his hand in spite of having a large family to support. (Muslim Bk 40-6853)
(24) Merits of saying, Subhan Allah
Abu Malik at-Ash’ari reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: Cleanliness is half of faith and
al-Hamdu Liliah (Praise be to Allah) fills the scale, and Subhan Allah (Glory be to Allah) and al-Hamdu Liliah (Praise be to Allah) fill up what is between the heavens and the earth, and prayer is a light, and charity is proof (of one’s faith) and endurance (patience) is a brightness and the Holy Qur’an is a proof on your behalf or against you. All men go out early in the morning and sell themselves, thereby setting themselves free or destroying themselves. (Muslim Bk 2- 0432)
(25) Virtues of one’s daughters’ brought up
Malik reported Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: He, who brought up two girls properly till they grew up, he and I would come (together) (very closely) on the Day of Resurrection, and he interlaced his fingers (for explaining the point of nearness between him and that person).
(Written by: Mirza Ehteshamuddin Ahmed)
I was talking to a brother about Allah’s promise for the Rizq for the maklook( creations), but on the other hand, Allah’s promise for the Jannah for one if we are obedient to Allah. Yet people are running after the Duniya for their Rizq which has already been promised by Allah. We should be trying for the Jannah, which has been promised only with our effort. Arriving home I thought to share a few thoughts on this with you.
First, off all let’s agree on the meaning of Rizq mentioned below:
Rizq is earnings, profit, or wealth
The definition of rizq includes everything whether its wealth, spouse, CHILDREN, provisions, sustenance, which of course includes food, clothing, shelter, etc
“All aspects of a person’s subsistence and livelihood fall under the definition of rizq, including but not restricted to wealth, status, business, and children.”
We see in this capitalist society, everyone will do anything that is possible to gain their Rizq. People think they are expanding their rizq by doing haram, opening liquor shops, but they aren’t. Islam tells us the rizq is assigned at our birth and on top of that Allah Subhanahu Wa Ta’ala made five promises of Rizq.
“And whoever fears Allah, for him Allah brings forth a way out, and gives him provision (rizq) from where he does not even imagine…” (Surah At-Talaq: 2/3)
In reference to this Ayaat-i- Karima:
“The word taqwa primarily and literally means ‘to guard’ or ‘to refrain’. In Islamic terminology, it signifies ‘to guard against sins’. When the word is related to Allah, it is translated as ‘to fear Allah’ and implies ‘to avoid disobedience of Allah and guard against sins’.”
Once, Saiyyidina Umar ibn al-Khattab (radhiall ahu anho) asked Saiyyidina Ka’ab Ahbaar (radhiallahu anho): “What is the reality of Taqwa?”
Ka’ab (radhiallahu anho) said: “Have you ever passed a thorny tree?”
Umar (radhiallahu anho) answered: “Yes.”
Ka’ab (radhiallahu anho) asked: “How did you pass?”
Umar (radhiallahu anho) answered: “I passed with such care that I ensured that no thorn got caught into my hem.”
Ka’ab (radhiallahu anho) then elaborated: “In the very same way, the reality of Taqwa is for one to save himself from the thorns of sins and negligence.”
So, this is the first thing with which Allah Ta’ala promised the righteous believers, that He will ease every difficulty of theirs and provide for them all their needs from resources they never expected or thought about.
2. Daily Five Prayers
Everyone who ever spends time in Jama’at should know that through the daily five prayers Allah Ta’ala makes the rizq easy – if you don’t then you should definitely spend time in the way of Allah. Anyone for 4 months? Anyway…
A hadith states: “Salaah is the cause of Allah’s pleasure: It is a beloved act of the Malaikah (angels), a sunnah of the Ambiyaa (alayhimus salam), the nur (light) of ma’rifah is achieved by it, du’aas are accepted, and barakah in rizq is attained.”
Once a Sahabi (radhiallahu anho) said: “When the household of Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) experienced difficulty in their expenses he commanded the performing of salaah, and recited this aayah:
“And enjoin upon thy people worship, and be constant therein. We ask not of thee a provision: We provide for thee. And the sequel is for righteousness.” (Surah Ta Ha: 132)”
Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has said in another Hadith: “The one who seeks forgiveness for Muslim males and females from Allah Ta’aala twenty-six or twenty-five times every day, Allah Ta’ala will count that person among those whose Du’a is accepted, and through the barakah of whom those on earth gain rizq (sustenance) .”
Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) not only made himself 70 till 100 times a day Istighfar and Taubah, but as well enjoined the Muslims to ask Allah Ta’ala frequently for forgiveness. One of the many virtues of Istighfar, that can be found in Ahadith, is that Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala deals with the person engaging much in Istighfar in a similar way like with the servant attaining Taqwa.
Sayyidina Abdullah bin Abbas (radhiallahu anho) narrates that Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) said: “The one who (regularly) says Istighfaar, that is, frequently repent to Allah Ta’aala for sins committed, Allah ‘Azza Wa-Jalla will open a path from poverty and difficulties. All sorrow and hardship will be removed, and in its place prosperity and contentment granted. One will receive sustenance from unimagined and unexpected sources.”
4. Tawakul On Allah
Tawakkul on Allah could be translated as sincere reliance on Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. In our context right now it means to be 100% convinced that Allah will definitely give me the rizq, that He has fixed for me. If all creations of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala (malaikah, jinns, humans, animals etc.) come together to change something about that, they simply can not.
Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has said: “If you have proper and sincere tawakkul (reliance) on Allah Ta’ala. He will grant you rizq like the birds are given rizq, who come out of their nests in the morning with empty stomachs and return to their nests in the evening with a full stomach. Allah Ta’aala says:
“And whoever places his trust in Allah, He is sufficient for him.” (Surah At-Talaq: 3)”
That’s how the Ayaat quoted above continues. Subhan’Allah, what an amazingly illustrious example our beloved Prophet Muhammad Mustafa (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) has given, may Allah shower His blessings upon him and his family.
Sayyidina Imraan bin Husayn (radhiallahu anho) narrates from Sayyidina Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) that: “The person who (sincerely) relies on Allah Ta’aala, Allah Ta’aala will suffice for all the responsibilities of that person. Rizq will be received from such sources, whence it cannot be imagined. The one who relies on the (material) world, Allah Ta’aala hands that person over to the world.”
“One who wishes to become the strongest should make tawakkul on Allah Ta’aala. One who wishes to become the most respectful should adopt taqwa (piety). The one who wishes to become the wealthiest should rely more on the qudrah (power) of Allah than that which is in ones possession.”
5. Infaaq Fisabilillah
It’s no secret that when spending or giving charity in the path of Allah, Allah Ta’ala according to His boundless mercy gives back much times more. There are many Ahadith regarding this, but to spare you time I’ll just type the incident of Hadhrat Sayyidina Ali (karamallahu wajuhu) and a beggar which will make you understand this concept very easily.
Oh yeah, and I almost forgot Asbab. There are no promises of Allah attached to Asbab, but our Yaqeen nowadays is made on them. May Allah forgive us and bring all these attributes into our life. Ameen!
Humans have always been social creatures and in need of friends and companions. Much of our lives are spent in interaction with others. For us Muslims who are living in a society where we are clearly a minority, the issue of choosing the right companions is essential for preserving our Deen. Befriending righteous and virtuous Muslims is an essential means for staying on the Straight Path. Strong individuals, on the other hand, are the core of a strong community, something that Muslims should always strive for.
We all know that we were created for a specific purpose and that Allah the Highest has given us life in order to test us. None of us will deny that we are here for a relatively short period of time and that we shall meet Allah ( s.w.t.) one Day.
Once we know our purpose and our goal, we should seek ways to achieve them so as to benefit our own selves. All of us believe that Allah has sent us a Messenger ( s.a.w.) and revealed to us the Qur’an, the Best Speech.
In an authentic Hadith, the Prophet Muhammad ( s.a.w.) said:
“A person is likely to follow the faith of his friend, so look at whom you befriend.”(1).
The person most noble in character and dealings with fellow humans gave us a very clear message and advice in regard to friendship. We should choose the friend that is satisfied with our Deen and avoid the friend that is displeased with it. Whoever we see and are pleased with his Deen, we should befriend him and whoever we are displeased with his Deen and his manners, we ought to avoid him. There is no good in the companion who does not wish for us (from good) what he wishes for himself. It is also no good in the companion who wishes for us what he wishes for himself if what he likes for his own soul is leading him towards destruction and Hellfire.
The bases for the actions of those who follow the evil ways are corrupt; their actions are built upon misguidance and deviation. Their deeds are worthless to them as Allah ( s.w.t.) said: “And We will proceed to what they have done of deeds, so We shall render them to scattered floating dust.” [25:23]. Their actions, even if we regard them as righteous and noble are of no value to them, so how can they be of benefit to us? Friends are those who feel for their companions, in both happy and sad moments. If we share our feelings with the wrongdoers whose actions are worthless and based on corruption, then we are following the same ways and standards as they are. The affection which results from that friendship leads to love and closeness to other than the righteous believers, and this may even lead to avoiding those who are on the Straight Way. Mixing with followers of any way other than that of the Guidance also results in a change in one’s behavior, morals, and conduct. If we agree, follow, and are pleased with such friends, then we inherit their habits, behaviors, and even religion. Such a Muslim would find himself in a situation wherein he is willing to hide his Islam in front of those who despise it (those that he considers as friends) and to separate from the believers. When this situation occurs, a point is reached when there is a very slight difference between the Muslim and his wrong-doing companion. Such companionship is the root of the sickness of one’s heart and the loss of one’s Deen.
Instead of making friends with the misguided ones we should befriend the righteous and treat the rest in a gracious and just manner. Staying on a sufficient distance is necessary, yet treating everybody in a noble and kind manner is required.
In another Hadith, Prophet Muhammad ( s.a.w.) said:
“The example of a good companion and a bad companion is like that of the seller of musk, and the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows. So as for the seller of musk then either he will grant you some, or you buy some from him, or at least you enjoy a pleasant smell from him. As for the one who blows the blacksmith’s bellows then either he will burn your clothes or you will get an offensive smell from him.” (2)
In his commentary of this Hadith, Imam an-Nawawy said that the Prophet (s.a.w.) compared a good companion to a seller of musk and spoke of the virtue of having companions who are good, who have noble manners, piety, knowledge and good culture. Such are those who grant us from their virtue. And he ( s.a.w.) forbade us to sit with those who do evil, commit a lot of sins and other bad deeds, as well as with innovators, backbiters, and so forth. Another scholar said: “keeping good company with the pious results in the attainment of beneficial knowledge, noble manners, and righteous actions, whereas keeping company with the wicked prevents all of that.”
Many times a Muslim is encouraged by his friends to do evil and to forget his duties. The result is that Muslims themselves are often ashamed to leave them to perform the prayer, their friends thus causing them to clearly deviate from the Right Path.
Allah the Exalted says in the Qur’an:
“And (remember) the Day when the wrong-doer will bite his hands and say: Woe to me! Would that I had taken a path with the Messenger. Woe to me! If only I had not taken so-and-so as a friend! He has led me astray from this Reminder (the Qur’an) after it had come to me. And Satan is ever a deserter to man in the hour of need.” [25:27-29]
So take heed before the inevitable Day comes and we are reckoned for our acts.
Allah, the All-Wise also says: “Friends on that Day will be enemies one to another, except al-Muttaqoon (i.e. those who have Taqwah).” [43:67]
Hafidh Ibn Katheer, commenting on this verse, relates a story on the authority of Ali Ibn Abi Talib ( r.a.a.) and says that any friendship for other than Allah is turned into enmity, except what was in it for Allah the Mighty and Majestic: Two who are friends for Allah’s sake; one of them dies and is given the good news that he will be granted al-Jannah, so he remembered his friend and he supplicated for him, saying: O Allah, my friend used to command me to obey You and to obey Your Prophet ( s.a.w.) and used to command me to do good and to forbid me from doing evil. And he told me that I will meet You. O Allah, do not let him go astray after me until you show him what you have just shown me, until You are satisfied with him, just like You are satisfied with me.” So he is told: “Had you known what is (written) for you friend, would you have laughed a lot and cried a little.” Then his friend dies and their souls are gathered, and both are asked to express their opinions about each other. So each one of them says to his friend: you were the best brother, the best companion and the best friend.” And when one of the two disbelieving friends die, and he is given tidings of Hellfire, he remembered his friend and he said: O Allah, my friend used to order me to disobey You and disobey Your Prophet, and commanded me to do evil, and forbade me from doing good, and told me that I would not meet You. O Allah, do not guide him after me until you show him what you have just shown me and until you are dissatisfied with him just like You are dissatisfied with me.” Then the other disbelieving friend dies, and their souls are gathered, and both are asked to give their opinions about each other. So each one says to his friend: you were the worst brother, the worst companion and the worst friend.”
That is the end of those who do not have Taqwah and those who befriend for a sake other than that of Allah the Exalted. Allah has surely spoken the truth and we all should grasp what He has informed us of. It is through the good company that Allah, the Highest, saves those who are astray and guides the wicked. The benefit of mixing with the righteous is immense, and it will, insha’Allah, be even more obvious to us in the Hereafter. One of the early Muslims said that it is from Allah’s blessings upon a youth when he turns to worship that he is given brother who is a follower of the Sunnah encouraging him upon it”.
Sealing a friendship for Allah’s sake will result in one’s receiving protection of Allah ( s.w.t.). And as Ibn Abbas said: “No one may taste true faith except by this (i.e. building relationships for Allah’s sake), even if his prayers and fasts are many. People have come to build their relationship around the concerns of the world, but it will not benefit them in any way.”
A scholar has said: “To seal a friendship for Allah’s sake indicates the obligation of establishing relationships of love and trust for His sake; this is a friendship for the sake of Allah. It also indicates that simple affection is not enough here; indeed what is meant is a love based upon alliance. This entails assistance, honor, and respect. It means being with those whom you love both in word and deed.”
Loyalty for the sake of Allah really means to love Allah and to come to the assistance of His Deen; to love those who are obedient to Him and to come to their help. Moreover, the Shahadah “La Ilaha Illa Allah” requires us to ally ourselves for the sake of Allah, and it requires us to ally ourselves to the Muslims wherever we find them.
In two other authentic narrations of the Prophet ( s.a.w.) we were commanded to keep company with a believer only (3), and told that a person will be with those he loves (4). So if we love and associate ourselves with those who are misguided, we should fear for our fate. The wise person is the one who prepares himself for the Hereafter, not the one who neglects his faith and falls into the trap of Satan who tells him that he will be forgiven and that he can do whatever he wishes. If we truly believe that the best speech is the Speech of Allah and that he best guidance is the guidance of Prophet Muhammad ( s.a.w.), we should act in accordance with them, lest we build a proof against ourselves. Ali (r.a.a.) said: “Mix with the noble people, you become one of them, and keep away from evil people to protect yourself from their evils.” If we are truly concerned about our fate, we must come to this realization: those who take us away from remembering Allah, from obeying Him and His Prophet ( s.a.w.), those who fail to remind us of our daily prayers and those who do not give us sincere advice in regard to our Deen; such are really our foes and not our friends.
On the other side, a believer in the mirror of his brother” (5), and if he sees any faults in the other believer, he draws his attention to it, helps him to give it up, and helps him wipe away any evil that he may have. Ibn Hazm said: Anyone who criticizes you cares about your friendship. Anyone who makes light of your faults cares nothing about you.”
How can we expect sincere advice and exhortation in regard to our religion from those who are displeased with our Deen or are simply indifferent? Are they going to help us achieve the purpose of our life, or will they take us away from it? Will they desire for us Allah’s pleasure or is that Completely irrelevant to them and not their concern at all? Are they leading us to al-Jannah or to the Hellfire? These are the questions we have to ask ourselves, lest we wake up after we die.
“O you who believe! Take care of your own selves. If you follow the right guidance and enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong no hurt can come to you from those who are in error. The return of you all is to Allah, then He will inform you about (all) that which you used to do.” [5:105]
We ask Allah to make us of the righteous ones and give us companions that will take us away from His Wrath and lead us to His Pleasure and Paradise.
1- Abu Dawood and at-Tirmidhee
2- al-Bukhary and Muslim.
3- Abu Dawood and at-Tirmidhee.
4- Al-Bukhary and Muslim.
5- Abu Dawood, Hassan Hadith.
Praise be to Allah. Allah has prescribed fasting for great reasons. One of the most important of these reasons and one of the greatest purposes achieved by the fast is so that we may attain piety (taqwa), as Allah says: O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqoon (the pious). (Qur’an 2:183)
Taqwa or piety means obeying that which Allah has commanded and avoiding that which He has forbidden.
The person who is fasting is commanded to do acts of worship and obedience, and he is forbidden to do haraam things. Sins are bad enough when committed by anyone, but they are even worse when committed by one who is fasting. Hence the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever does not give up false speech and acting in accordance with it, and ignorant conduct, Allah has no need of him giving up his food and drink. (Al-Bukhari)
Ibn Khuzaymah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said: “Fasting does not just mean giving up food and drink, rather fasting also means giving up idle and obscene talk. (Sahih Al-Targheeb)
Secondly, a woman’s making a wanton display (tabarruj) of her beauty and charms to non-mahram men detracts from the reward of fasting. The more sins are committed and the more serious they are, the more that detracts from the reward of fasting, and it may cancel out the reward altogether, so that a person may have denied himself food, drink and all the things that invalidate the fast, yet still is deprived of the reward for that by disobeying Allah.
Hence the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “The one who fasts may get nothing from his fast but hunger, and the one who performs qiyaam (salah) may get nothing from his qiyaam but a sleepless night.” – Narrated by Ibn Maajah.
Thirdly, with regard to fasting that is accompanied by sins – including tabarruj on the part of a woman – the fast is not invalidated by that, rather it is valid and the fasting person has fulfilled his obligation and does not have to make up for the fast. But the reward for fasting gets decreased owing to that sin and it may be cancelled out altogether as stated above.
Al-Nawawi said in Al-Majmou: The fasting person should protect his fast from backbiting and slander. What this means is that it is more important for the fasting person to avoid these sins than others, although those who are not fasting should avoid these sins too, as that is the command for all situations. If a person backbites while fasting, he has committed a sin but that does not invalidate his fast in our view.
This is the view of Malik, Abu Hanifah, Ahmad and all the scholars except Al-Awzai‚ who said that the fast is invalidated by backbiting, and must therefore be made up.
Based on this, the fasting person has to avoid haraam words and actions, so he should not backbite people, or tell lies, or spread malicious gossip amongst them, he should not engage in haraam transactions, and he should avoid all haraam things.
If a person avoids that for a whole month then he should be able to adhere to that straight path for the rest of the year. But unfortunately many of those who fast do not differentiate between the days when they fast and the days when they do not fast, so they carry on as usual with haraam speech such as lying, cheating and so on. You do not feel that they are observing the sanctity of fasting. These actions do not invalidate the fast but they do detract from its reward, and may cancel out the reward of fasting altogether.
1. Actions that are to be Avoided While Fasting
Know that the fasting person is one whose limbs withhold from sins, his tongue from lies, foul speech and falsehood, his stomach from food and drink, and his private parts from sexual intercourse. So if he speaks he says that which will not harm his fast, and if he acts he does actions which will not spoil his fast – so his speech is good and his actions righteous.
This is the fasting that is prescribed; not merely withholding from food, drink, and desires. Just as food and drink render it invalid, similarly sins cut off its reward, spoil its fruit and make him the same as a person who has not fasted.
The prophet (peace be upon him) urged the fasting Muslim to display noble manners; to be far from foul speech and evil actions, and abstain from the rude and obscene talk. The Muslim is commanded to be far from these evil characteristics all the time, the forbiddance being even stronger whilst he is performing the obligation of fasting. So the Muslim who is fasting must avoid those actions which harm his fast, so that he can attain benefit from his fasting and attain Taqwaa which Allah mentioned: “O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious).”
Talq ibn Habeeb (a Taabiee – a student of a companion of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him)) was asked to define Taqwaa, so he said, “Taqwaa is acting in obedience to Allah, hoping for His Mercy upon light from Him, and Taqwaa is leaving acts of disobedience to Allah, out of Fear of Him, upon light from Him.”
Fasting is a means of attaining Taqwaa, since it prevents one from many sins that a person is prone to, Aboo Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) reported Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) as saying: “Fasting is a shield.”
Narrated Aboo Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him): The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink.” The meaning of “no need” being that such as fast is not acceptable to Allaah.
Telling false statements and doing evil deeds are prohibited and must be avoided. The fasting person must refrain from telling lies and engaging in vain arguments. For example, a shopkeeper tries to tell lies to his customers or trap them by cheating and deceiving them. Unfortunately, most shopkeepers have such habits. Such behavior is always forbidden (even more during the fast). How astonishing and incredible it is that people commit such grave sins and deceitful deeds while fasting! This is a dangerous sign of their heedlessness and irresponsible behavior. Warning those people, Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said, “How many fasting people will perhaps get nothing from their fast but hunger, and how many who get up for night prayer will get nothing from their standing except sleeplessness.”
The reason for this is that one who does these things does not understand the reality of fasting that Allah has made obligatory upon us, so Allah punishes him by refusing him the reward. Because of this our Pious Predecessors (as – Salafus – Saalih) make a distinction between the forbiddance that is due to something directly related to the worship – which render it futile, and those things not related to it directly, which do no render it futile.
1.2 Ignorant and Indecent Speech
Narrated Aboo Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him): The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said, “Fasting is not just (abstaining from) eating and drinking, but fasting is also (refraining) from vain speech (Laghw) and foul (or obscene) language (Rafath). If one of you is being verbally abused or annoyed, he should say, ‘I am Fasting.’”
Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have Mercy on him) said, “The one who is abused should say this (i.e. ‘I am Fasting) out loud, thereby clarifying the reason for his lack of response (to the abuse) and it will become a rebukement in itself for the one who started the trouble.”
Laghw refers to anything that is irrational and unrealistic. Including (but not limited to) wasting time by listening and viewing Radio and TV programs. Playing card games and chess etc., romance novels and stories of sexual passion, magic, and dramas, etc., useless talking and conversations with friends; backbiting and slander; nonsensical jokes, mockeries and similar kinds of behavior. These all must be shunned.
Rafath implies every action and word expressing sexual desire or its connotations.
Both Laghw and Rafath are prohibited for the fasting person. Therefore, everyone must refrain from all of the above-mentioned deeds. Similarly, whoever attempts to quarrel, dispute, utter obscenities and foul words, or is harshly abusive, then a fasting person must show perseverance and patience towards such an evildoer. A fasting person must abstain from arguments, disputes and hostilities, and face those situations with a polite and moderate composure.
Among the things that can destroy one’s hasanaat (good deeds) and bring sayi’aat (bad deeds) is allowing oneself to be distracted by quiz-shows, soap operas, movies and sports matches, idle gatherings, hanging about in the streets with evil people and time-wasters, driving around for no purpose, and crowding the streets and sidewalks, so that the months of tahajjud, dhikr, and worship, for many people, becomes the month of sleeping in the day so as to avoid feeling hungry, thus missing their prayers and the opportunity to pray them in congregation, then spending their nights in entertainment and indulging their desires.
Some people even greet the month with feelings of annoyance, thinking only of the pleasures they will miss out on. In Ramadan, some people travel to Kaaffir lands to enjoy a holiday! Even the mosques are not free from such evils as the appearance of women wearing makeup and perfume, and even the Sacred House of Allah is not free of these ills. Some people make the month a season for begging, even though they are not in need. Some of them entertain themselves with dangerous fireworks and the like, and some of them waste their time in the markets, wandering around the shops, or sewing and following fashions. Some of them put new products and new styles in their stores during the last ten days of the month, to keep people away from earning rewards and hasanaat.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “It may be that a person attains nothing but hunger and thirst from his fasting.”
And It is Only Allaah Who grants success. May Allah Exalt the mention of His slave and Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him), and render him, his household and companion safe from Evil.
‘Fasting In Ramadaan’, by Sheikh Saleem al – Hilaalee and ‘Alee ‘Abdul Hameed, al – Hidaayah Publishers, 1999
‘Ramadaan: Rules and Related Issues’, by Hafiz Salah – ud – Din Yusuf, Darussalam publishers, 199
‘The Month of Ramadaan: Problems related to Fasting’, by Abu Eesa Niamatullah http://www.islaam.net/main/display.php?id=941&category=7
‘Matters Related to Fasting’, by Sheikh Muhammad Saalih al – Munajjid, IIPH publishers, 1999
 ‘Fasting in Ramadaan’, p. 43 – 45
 ‘Ramadaan: Rules and Related Issues’, p. 15 – 17
 The Noble Qur’an, Soorah Al-Baqarah 2:183
 Ibn Abee Shaybah, Kitaabul – Eemaan, Number 99; Declared Saheeh by Sheikh al – Albaanee; as quoted in Fasting in Ramadaan’, p. 43
 Saheeh Muslim, Book 006, Number 2565
 Saheeh Bukhaari, Volume 3, Book 31, Number 127
 As occurs in Fathul – Baaree, 4/117 and Faidul – Qadeer, 6/223 – 224.
 Ad – Darimee; Classed Hasan by Sheikh al – Albaanee in Mishkat, Vol. 1, p. 626; as quoted in ‘Ramadaan: Rules and Related Issues’, p. 17
 E.g. eating and drinking
 E.g. Falsehood
 Refer to Jaami’ ul – ‘Uloom was – Hikam, p. 58, of Ibn Rajab; as quoted in Fasting in Ramadaan’, p. 45
 Sunan al – Bayhaqi; Sahih ibn Khuzaymah; al-Hakim; Classed Saheeh by Sheikh al – Albaanee in Saheeh al – Jami’ As – Saghir, Number 5376; as quoted in ‘Ramadaan: Rules and Related Issues’, p. 16
 ‘The Month of Ramadaan: Problems related to Fasting’, by Abu Eesa Niamatullah http://www.islaam.net/main/display.php?id=941&category=7
 Matters Related to Fasting, p. 16 – 17
 Sunan Ibn Maajah, 1/539; ad – Daarimee, 2/211; Musnad Ahmad, 2/441; Sunan al – Bayhaqee, 4/270; Its Isnaad is Saheeh, as quoted in ‘Fasting in Ramadaan’, p. 45