A Mahram of a woman is her husband or that pious male with whom Niqah can ‘never’ be permissible from direct family relation or sharing (suckling) foster mothers.
For example: (all the following relations are from the paternal side)
1. True brothers from one mother, true nephews (brothers sons), father/mothers elder/younger brother, sons son and daughters son, grandfathers…
2. Sharing (suckling) foster mothers, drinking milk in infancy from the same woman However for the milk relations (foster brother/sisters) extra caution should be taken and Hajj not be performed with such persons due to fitnah(threatening) conditions manifest today. (Fatawa Shami vol 2 p199)
Relations formed ‘in-law’
3. Father-in-law, son-in-law. (In this day and age of fitnah, it is recommended not to take up any journey ) : Fatawa Shami vol2 p199:
A Mahram must be of mature age (passed puberty) have mental understanding and be a practicing Muslim.
All women whether old or young have to be accompanied by a Mahram, without a suitable Mahram the requirement of Hajj will be fulfilled yet she will be sinning greatly.
Abu Said Al Kudri (RA) narrates RasulAllah (saw) said: ‘It is not Halal for a woman who believes in Allah (SWT) and the Last Day that she travel for 3 days or more without a Mahram.’(Muslim)
It should be understood, that in today’s terms, this translates to a journey of 48 miles one way. As in the time of Nabi (saw) journeys were undertaken by foot. For a woman to travel 48 miles or more alone is Haram.
If a woman does not have a Mahram or If there is a Mahram yet they are not able to travel with them during their lifetime, in this instance a woman must bequest(wasiyat) her Hajj to another to perform it on her behalf.
Note: Today people use the excuse of family relations that do not qualify as Mahram to travel, including to Hajj, this is not permissible. For example brothers-in-law, husbands nephews, cousins brothers, and servants.
May Allah (SWT) grant our woman a Hajj according to Shariah and accept our efforts and Duas. Aameen.
Mufti Yusuf Danka Al-Kauthar
Adhan: The call to prayer (salat); is usually issued from the minaret of a mosque.
Arafat: A desert location approximately nine miles east of Makkah where the pilgrim spends the 9th of Zul Hijjah as a rite of Hajj. The waqfa is performed at Arafat.
Ayyam ut Tashreeq: The 11th, 12th, and 13th days of the month of Zul Hijjah. On these days, the pilgrim performs Rummy in Mina.
Dum: Also known as khaffarah. This is the atonement required of a pilgrim for a willful violation of a prohibition or obligation whilst in the state of Ihram.
Eid ul-Adha: The festival of sacrifice performed on the 10th day of Zul-Hijjah. An animal such as a sheep or goat has been sacrificed as a commemoration of Prophet Ibrahim’s (PBUH) willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God.
Ezaar: Lower cloth of Ihram.
Hajj: Hajj is one of the five pillars or central duties of Islam. It is a set of acts of worship to be performed in and around Makkah at least once in a lifetime by every Muslim satisfying certain conditions. There are three types of Hajj (see below).
Hajj ul Ifrad: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his niyyah (i.e.intention) to perform only Hajj at Miqat while changing into Ihram.
Hajj ul Qiran: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform both Umra and Hajj together with the same Ihram at Miqat.
Hajj ut Tamattu: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform only Umra at Miqat when changing into Ihram. A second niyyah, and a second change into Ihram follow on the 8th of Zul Hijjah for the performance of the remaining rites of Hajj.
Hajar ul Aswad: The sacred Black Stone built into the southeast corner of the Kaaba at a height of approximately four feet. The stone does not belong to the geology of the region and is a part of the original construction of the Kaaba by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). The Black Stone was personally installed in the wall of the Kaaba by the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) himself during its reconstruction following its destruction by a flash flood. The Prophet (PBUH) also kissed it during his Last (Farewell) Hajj. Thus, touching and kissing (Istilam) of Hajar ul Aswad during Umra and Hajj is considered sunnah.
Halq: The complete shaving of the head by the male pilgrim on the 10th of Zul Hijjah. This is the last thing he does before getting out of the state of Ihram. See Taqseer also. For female pilgrims, the requirements of Halq and Taqseer are satisfied if they trim their hair by approximately half an inch.
Haram ash Shareef: The mosque around the Kabah in Makkah, as well as the mosque in Medina. The latter, also known as Al-Masjid un Nabawi, contains within its premises the grave of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH).
Hateem: The area adjacent to the Kabah on its west side, is enclosed by a low semi-circular wall. Tradition has it that Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim [pbuh]) is buried in this enclosure. It is highly recommended that the pilgrim should offer salat us sunnah and supplications to Allah in this area. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.
Idtiba: The mode of Ihram used during Tawaf ul Qudoom. The male pilgrim drapes one end of the top part of his Ihram over his left shoulder back-to-front. The other end goes across his back, under his right arm, across his front, and is finally draped over his left shoulder. Idtiba is not observed in any other type of Tawaf. Also, when the pilgrim offers salat us sunnah after Tawaf ul Qudoom or an obligatory salat during this Tawaf, he must cover both his shoulders. In other words, Idtiba is practiced only while actually performing Tawaf ul Qudoom. Female pilgrims wear no Ihram so that the question of Idtiba for them does not arise.
Ihram: The distinctive garb of the male pilgrim worn during Umra or Hajj. It consists of two pieces of white, plain, and unsewn cloth. One of the pieces (ezaar) is wrapped around the midriff to cover his body from just above his navel to his ankles, and the other (reda) is draped around his shoulders to cover the upper body. For ladies, their ordinary, and unpretentious clothes of daily wear constitute their Ihram.
Istilam: The act of kissing Hajar ul Aswad at the beginning and the end of every circumambulation (circuit) of the Kaaba during Tawaf. If it is not possible physically to kiss Hajar ul Aswad for any reason, the pilgrim may extend his hand to touch the Sacred Stone and then kiss his own hand. If even that is not possible, he may raise his hand towards Hajar ul Aswad and, thereafter, kiss his own hand.
Jamraat: The three stone pillars in Mina symbolically represent the locations where the devil (shaitan) attempted to tempt Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) away from the path of Allah. The pilgrim symbolically stones these pillars on the 10th through to the 13th of Zul Hijjah in commemoration of the rejection of the devil by Prophet Ibrahim, and of his steadfastness to the cause of Allah. The Jamraat are located within a few hundred feet of one another in a line and are named as follows:
Jamrat ul Kubra: The last stone pillar in the line. This is also called Jamrat ul Uqabah.
Jamrat ul Oola: The first stone pillar in the line.
Jamrat ul Wusta: The second (middle) stone pillar in the line.
Kaaba: A cubic structure originally built by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and his eldest son Ishmael. It is now housed within the Haram ash Shareef in Makkah. During Hajj, the essential rite of Tawaf is performed around the Ka’bah. Every day, millions of Muslims perform prayers (salat) facing the direction of the Ka’bah.
Kaffarah: Another name for Dum
Marwah: A rocky hillock located approximately one hundred yards from the Ka’bah inside Al Masjid ul Haram. The pilgrim performs the devotional rite of Sai between the hillocks of Safa and Marwah.
Mahram: The husband, or a male companion of a female pilgrim to whom her marriage is expressly prohibited by the shariah (e.g., father, brother, uncle, nephew, etc.) A woman must be accompanied by a Mahram for Umra and Hajj.
Makam-o-Ibrahim: The stepping stone used by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) during the original construction of the Ka’bah. The stone carries the imprints of his feet and is housed in a glass enclosure on the north side of the Kabah.
Masjid ul Haram: The mosque around the Kabah is also known as Haram ash Shareef.
Mes’aa: The stretch between Safa and Marwah. See also Sai.
Miqat: An imaginary boundary around Makkah. A prospective pilgrim cannot cross this boundary without first changing into Ihram. This boundary is anchored by different townships and localities in different directions (Zul Hulaifa in the north, Yalamlam in the south-east, Dhat Irq in the north-east, Juhfah in the north-west, Qarn ul Manazil in the east.) The pilgrim changes into Ihram at Miqat and pronounces his intention to perform Umra or Hajj. For people living inside the Miqat permanently, their place of residence is their Miqat.
Mina: A desert location approximately three miles east of Makkah where several rites of Hajj are performed.
Muallim: A knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj. Also called a Mutawwif.
Muhrim: A pilgrim in the state of Ihram
Multazam: The part of the Ka’bah between its door and Hajar ul Aswad. This is a specially sacred part of the Ka’bah. It is recommended that, if possible, the pilgrim should touch the Ka’bah at Multazam and offer supplications to Allah. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.
Mutamatti: One who has performed Hajj ut Tamattu.
Mutawwif: A knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj. Also called a Muallim.
Muzdalifah: A desert location approximately midway between Mina and Arafat. The pilgrim spends the night of the 10th of Zul Hijjah here.
Namira: A mosque in Arafat
Niyyah: Intention. All acts of worship are preceded by an appropriate niyyah.
Qarin: One who has performed Hajj ul Qiran
Qasr: The mode of shortened prayers is usually offered when on a journey.
Qibla: The direction (towards the Ka’bah) that Muslims face praying.
Ramal: The ritual where male pilgrims are required to walk briskly with their chests thrust forward and with their shoulders rolling slightly during the first three circuits of Tawaf ul Qudoom. Ladies are not required to practice Ramal
Reda’: The upper cloth of Ihram.
Rummy: The act of symbolically stoning the devil (shaitan) in Mina on the 10th through to the 13th of Zul Hijjah. This commemorates the tradition that Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was tempted three times by the devil but rejected all three of the devil’s attempts by stoning him and driving him away. These three locations are symbolized by three stone pillars (jamaraat) in Mina.
Safa: A small hillock approximately half a mile from the Kabah, inside Al-Masjid ul Haram. The pilgrim performs the act of Sai (or ‘running’) between Safa and Marwah.
Sai: The act of walking seven times back and forth between the rocky hillocks of Safa and Marwah. This act retraces the footsteps of Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim), during her desperate search for water to quench the thirst of her infant son Ishmael after they were left in the desert by Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) in response to a divine vision.
Salat: Obligatory or supererogatory prayers.
Shawt: One complete circumambulation, or circuit, of the Kabah. Each shawt (pl. ashwaat) starts and ends at Hajar ul Aswad. Seven ashwaat constitute one Tawaf.
Talbiyah ra: A recital of the following words by the pilgrim during Umra and Hajj:
Labbaik Allah humma labbaik Labbaik la sharika laka labbaik Innal hamda Wan-ni’mata Laka walmulk Laa sharika lak. Meaning: O my Lord, here I am at Your service, here I am. There is no partner with You, here I am. Truly the praise and the provisions are Yours, and so is the dominion and sovereignty. There is no partner with You.
Masah is permissible on three kinds of socks:
- Socks made of leather cover the feet up to the ankles.
- Such kind of woolen or cotton socks which have a leather sole.
- Wollen or cotton socks, so thick and strong that they are not torn (damaged) if one walks wearing them without shoes, etc., for a distance of three or four miles,
It is permissible to perform Masah when the proper socks are worn after the Ablution, or after washing the feet, and having continuously worn them, even after the Ablution breaks. Masah on socks is allowed for one day and a night, if one is at home, or is staying at some place. If one is on a journey, Masah is permissible for three days and three nights.
Masah is to be performed on the upper part of the socks. Wet your fingers with water. then put three fingers on the toes, pulling them upwards. apply full fingers, and not only their tips. There is no Masah on the sole or the heels.
Important note: Masah on regular socks is not permitted, also one should make Masah on the upper part of the socks rather than only sol or the heels. It is better to wash your feet rather than take risks.
Q. Is Masa’h (wiping) allowed on the torn socks?
A. If the sock is torn so much that its flaw is equal to the area of three small toes, or the sock opens up during a walk to that extent, then Masah (wiping) is not permitted. If the damage is less, Masah is permissible.
Q. From what time is the duration of wiping (Massah) over the socks counted?
A. The permissible duration, for wiping (Massah) is calculated from the moment the ablution is nullified. From that time onwards, the Massah is allowed on socks: for one day and one night; or, for three days and three nights, as the case may be. For example, if socks are worn on Friday morning after ablution, and it (ablution) nullifies after the time for Zuhr prayer is over, a local person (Muqim) can perform Massah till the time of Zuhr prayer on Saturday. If the person is a traveler (not local) he can perform Massah till Zuhr prayer on Monday.
Q. What are the things that invalidate Massah?
A. The same acts which nullify the ablution, also nullify the Massah. Apart from that, Massah becomes invalid as soon as: (1) The permissible period for Massah is over; (2) The socks are taken off, and (3) The socks are torn, making a hole as big as three toes.
Q. What, if one takes off the socks, or the time for Massah expires, while one has the ablution?
A. Under both these situations, it is enough to wash the feet only and put on the socks. It is, however, desirable (Mustahab) to renew the entire ablution.
Q. What should a traveler do if he returns home only one day and one night after he began the Massah on socks?
A. He should remove the socks and start the Massah again.
Q. What should a local person (non-traveler) do if he starts on a journey after making Massah at home?
A. If he starts on a journey before the expiry of one day and a night, he can keep the socks on and continue doing the Massah for three days and three nights. If, however, he starts the journey after one day and one night, he must remove the socks and begin with a fresh Massah.
Q. What, if the socks are torn in several places?
A. We must judge whether the total area of the tear is equal to three toes. If so, Massah is not allowed. If the tear is less, Massah is allowed. However, if the combined tear of the two socks equals three toes, while the tear of each sock, separately, is less than that, then Massah is permissible.
It is highly virtuous to remain in Wadu condition at all times. The general rule is one should make fresh ablution before each prayer, however, one’s wadu is valid until unless the following one of the eight (8) conditions take place known as the nullifiers of Ablution (Nawaquid of Wudu), namely:
Things which Nullify Wudhu:
- Discharging urine; feces, or any other matter from these passages.
- Passing stomach gases from the back.
- The flow of blood, or pus from any part of the body.
- To fall asleep, while lying down, or when leaning against something.
- Fainting due to illness, or for any other reason.
- Going mad; insane.
- Laughing aloud in Prayers (Salat)
If a person requires wadu he or she is in a state of Hadather Asghar. It is makrooh Tahrimi to touch the Holy Quran or even the empty spaces of the pages. but is permissible to recite the Quran without touching. If a verse of the Holy Quran is written on a page that is not a part of the Holy Quran i.e., books, or newspapers, it will be permissible to touch the book or page but not the verse. minor children may touch the Quran without Wudhu, It is not permissible to perform Salaat.
Islamic ablution (Wudu) consists of many actions Some actions are absolutely obligatory’ (Fard). without these actions the ablution is invalid. There are some actions that may be left out, the ‘ablution’ will not be invalidated; though it will be improper (Naquis). Such actions are called ‘Sunnah’. There are certain other actions that bring greater blessings of Allah, known as ‘desirables’ (Mustahab’bat). If these are left out, no harm is done
No doubt clean water plays important role in achieving purity, alternatively in absence of water or health reasons the dry ablution is ordered by Almighty Allah.
Obligatory (Fard) actions in Ablution:
There are four compulsory actions (Fard) in Ablution:
- Washing the face from the hair of the forehead to the lower portion of the chin, and across from one ear to the other;
- Washing both hands and arms up to the elbows.
- Performing the Masa’h (wiping with wet hands, one-fourth of one’s head).
- Washing both the feet up to the ankles.
Sunnah actions in Ablution:
- Saying the Intention (Niyyah).
- Reciting ‘Bismillah’.
- Washing the hands, three times, up to the wrists.
- Brushing teeth with a tooth-stick (Miswak).
- Rinsing the mouth, thrice.
- Sniffing water into the nostrils, thrice.
- Combing (doing Khilal) the beard with the fingers.
- Passing fingers of both hands, against each other, and also passing them through the toes (Khilal of fingers and toes).
- Washing, each limb, three times.
- Performing the Masa’h once over the whole head i.e. wiping head with wet hands.
- Performing the Masa’h of the two ears.
- Performing Ablution (Wudu) in proper order.
- Washing each part, one after the other, without pause, to ensure that no part dries up before the next step.
Desirable (Mustahab) actions in Ablution:
- To begin Ablution (Wudu) from the right side Some scholars regard this among the Masnun (Sunnah) acts. This is quite likely.
- Performing ‘Masa’h’ of the nape.
- Performing Ablution all by himself, without taking others’ help.
- Facing Qiblah.
- Performing Ablution while sitting at a clean and elevated place.
Undesirable (Makrooh) actions in Ablution:
- Performing Ablution in a dirty place.
- Blowing one’s nose with the right hand.
- Talking worldly affairs while performing Ablution.
- Performing Ablution in a manner contrary to Sunnah.
Complete list of actions in Ablution:
- With the intention of saying the prayers (Salat) one should take running clean water (or take water in a clean bucket etc.
- Wash hands up to the wrists.
- Rinse the mouth three times; brush the teeth.
- Sniff water into each nostril, three times; cleanse the nose.
- wash the face, three times.
- hands, up to the elbows.
- Perform ‘Masa’h of the head and ears (moving palms of wet hands overhead, starting from the top of the forehead to the back and passing both hands over the back of the head to the neck.
- Rub wet fingers into the grooves of both ears and holes, and also pass the wet thumbs behind the ears).
Wash the feet, including the ankles.
The Islamic prayer ( salat ) is a special way of worshipping Allah and offering devotion to Him which has been taught by Allah, the Almighty, and by the Holy Prophet (Peace be on him). There are seven pre-requisites of Prayers. Without all these, Prayer is not valid. These are the essentials of Prayers’, and hence obligatory (Fard).
Seven pre-requisites of Prayer:
- Cleanliness of the body.
- Cleanliness of the clothes.
- Cleanliness of the place (where Prayer is being offered).
- Hiding (covering) parts of the body ordained to be covered (i.e. the Satr).
- Time is proper for the Prayer.
- Facing the Qiblah.
- Saying the ‘intention’ (Niyyah).
The body’s cleanliness means that it should be free from all impurities (Najaasat).which are of two types:
1. Visible impurities (Haqeeqi), such as urine; feces; blood, or wine.
2. Invisible impurities (Hukmi). which are two types.
a. Lesser type or minor uncleanliness is known as ‘Hadath Asghar in such case Ablution (wudu) is required.
b. Major uncleanliness’, known as ‘Hadath Akbar and Janabat’. in most cases can only be removed from the body by taking a bath (Ghusl)
Before doing ablution one must be sure that he or she is correct, In what circumstances does the bath become obligatory? and the proper method to perform the bath. bath (ghusl) It is also a practice of Muslims to clean their private parts after the call of nature
The ablution is necessary for obligatory, sunnah, and optional prayers; reciting and touching the Holy Qur’an; Sajdah-e-Talawat, offering funeral prayers; or many other kinds of worship.
Authority of ablution in Holy Quran sura-. Maida (5:6) Allah says:
O you who believe! When you rise up for prayer, wash your face, and your hands up to the elbows, lightly rub your heads, and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if you are unclean, purify yourselves. And if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you comes from the closet, or you have had to contact with women, and you find no water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that you may give thanks.