Adhan: The call to prayer (salat); is usually issued from the minaret of a mosque.

Arafat: A desert location approximately nine miles east of Makkah where the pilgrim spends the 9th of Zul Hijjah as a rite of Hajj. The waqfa is performed at Arafat.

Ayyam ut Tashreeq: The 11th, 12th, and 13th days of the month of Zul Hijjah. On these days, the pilgrim performs Rummy in Mina.

Dum: Also known as khaffarah. This is the atonement required of a pilgrim for a willful violation of a prohibition or obligation whilst in the state of Ihram.

Eid ul-Adha: The festival of sacrifice performed on the 10th day of Zul-Hijjah. An animal such as a sheep or goat has been sacrificed as a commemoration of Prophet Ibrahim’s (PBUH) willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael for God.

Ezaar: Lower cloth of Ihram.

Hajj: Hajj is one of the five pillars or central duties of Islam. It is a set of acts of worship to be performed in and around Makkah at least once in a lifetime by every Muslim satisfying certain conditions. There are three types of Hajj (see below).

Hajj ul Ifrad: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his niyyah (i.e.intention) to perform only Hajj at Miqat while changing into Ihram.

Hajj ul Qiran: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform both Umra and Hajj together with the same Ihram at Miqat.

Hajj ut Tamattu: The type of Hajj where the pilgrim pronounces his intention to perform only Umra at Miqat when changing into Ihram. A second niyyah, and a second change into Ihram follow on the 8th of Zul Hijjah for the performance of the remaining rites of Hajj.

Hajar ul Aswad: The sacred Black Stone built into the southeast corner of the Kaaba at a height of approximately four feet. The stone does not belong to the geology of the region and is a part of the original construction of the Kaaba by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH). The Black Stone was personally installed in the wall of the Kaaba by the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) himself during its reconstruction following its destruction by a flash flood. The Prophet (PBUH) also kissed it during his Last (Farewell) Hajj. Thus, touching and kissing (Istilam) of Hajar ul Aswad during Umra and Hajj is considered sunnah.

Halq: The complete shaving of the head by the male pilgrim on the 10th of Zul Hijjah. This is the last thing he does before getting out of the state of Ihram. See Taqseer also. For female pilgrims, the requirements of Halq and Taqseer are satisfied if they trim their hair by approximately half an inch.

Haram ash Shareef: The mosque around the Kabah in Makkah, as well as the mosque in Medina. The latter, also known as Al-Masjid un Nabawi, contains within its premises the grave of Prophet Mohammed (PBUH).

Hateem: The area adjacent to the Kabah on its west side, is enclosed by a low semi-circular wall. Tradition has it that Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim [pbuh]) is buried in this enclosure. It is highly recommended that the pilgrim should offer salat us sunnah and supplications to Allah in this area. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.

Idtiba: The mode of Ihram used during Tawaf ul Qudoom. The male pilgrim drapes one end of the top part of his Ihram over his left shoulder back-to-front. The other end goes across his back, under his right arm, across his front, and is finally draped over his left shoulder. Idtiba is not observed in any other type of Tawaf. Also, when the pilgrim offers salat us sunnah after Tawaf ul Qudoom or an obligatory salat during this Tawaf, he must cover both his shoulders. In other words, Idtiba is practiced only while actually performing Tawaf ul Qudoom. Female pilgrims wear no Ihram so that the question of Idtiba for them does not arise.

Ihram: The distinctive garb of the male pilgrim worn during Umra or Hajj. It consists of two pieces of white, plain, and unsewn cloth. One of the pieces (ezaar) is wrapped around the midriff to cover his body from just above his navel to his ankles, and the other (reda) is draped around his shoulders to cover the upper body. For ladies, their ordinary, and unpretentious clothes of daily wear constitute their Ihram.

Istilam: The act of kissing Hajar ul Aswad at the beginning and the end of every circumambulation (circuit) of the Kaaba during Tawaf. If it is not possible physically to kiss Hajar ul Aswad for any reason, the pilgrim may extend his hand to touch the Sacred Stone and then kiss his own hand. If even that is not possible, he may raise his hand towards Hajar ul Aswad and, thereafter, kiss his own hand.

Jamraat: The three stone pillars in Mina symbolically represent the locations where the devil (shaitan) attempted to tempt Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) away from the path of Allah. The pilgrim symbolically stones these pillars on the 10th through to the 13th of Zul Hijjah in commemoration of the rejection of the devil by Prophet Ibrahim, and of his steadfastness to the cause of Allah. The Jamraat are located within a few hundred feet of one another in a line and are named as follows:

Jamrat ul Kubra: The last stone pillar in the line. This is also called Jamrat ul Uqabah.

Jamrat ul Oola:
The first stone pillar in the line.

Jamrat ul Wusta: The second (middle) stone pillar in the line.

Kaaba: A cubic structure originally built by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) and his eldest son Ishmael. It is now housed within the Haram ash Shareef in Makkah. During Hajj, the essential rite of Tawaf is performed around the Ka’bah. Every day, millions of Muslims perform prayers (salat) facing the direction of the Ka’bah.

Kaffarah: Another name for Dum

Marwah: A rocky hillock located approximately one hundred yards from the Ka’bah inside Al Masjid ul Haram. The pilgrim performs the devotional rite of Sai between the hillocks of Safa and Marwah.

Mahram: The husband, or a male companion of a female pilgrim to whom her marriage is expressly prohibited by the shariah (e.g., father, brother, uncle, nephew, etc.) A woman must be accompanied by a Mahram for Umra and Hajj.

Makam-o-Ibrahim: The stepping stone used by Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) during the original construction of the Ka’bah. The stone carries the imprints of his feet and is housed in a glass enclosure on the north side of the Kabah.

Masjid ul Haram: The mosque around the Kabah is also known as Haram ash Shareef.

Mes’aa: The stretch between Safa and Marwah. See also Sai.

Miqat: An imaginary boundary around Makkah. A prospective pilgrim cannot cross this boundary without first changing into Ihram. This boundary is anchored by different townships and localities in different directions (Zul Hulaifa in the north, Yalamlam in the south-east, Dhat Irq in the north-east, Juhfah in the north-west, Qarn ul Manazil in the east.) The pilgrim changes into Ihram at Miqat and pronounces his intention to perform Umra or Hajj. For people living inside the Miqat permanently, their place of residence is their Miqat.

Mina: A desert location approximately three miles east of Makkah where several rites of Hajj are performed.

Muallim: A knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj. Also called a Mutawwif.

Muhrim: A pilgrim in the state of Ihram

Multazam: The part of the Ka’bah between its door and Hajar ul Aswad. This is a specially sacred part of the Ka’bah. It is recommended that, if possible, the pilgrim should touch the Ka’bah at Multazam and offer supplications to Allah. However, this is not a part of the official rites of Hajj.

Mutamatti: One who has performed Hajj ut Tamattu.

Mutawwif: A knowledgeable professional who can guide the pilgrim during Hajj. Also called a Muallim.

Muzdalifah: A desert location approximately midway between Mina and Arafat. The pilgrim spends the night of the 10th of Zul Hijjah here.

Namira: A mosque in Arafat

Niyyah: Intention. All acts of worship are preceded by an appropriate niyyah.

Qarin: One who has performed Hajj ul Qiran

Qasr: The mode of shortened prayers is usually offered when on a journey.

Qibla: The direction (towards the Ka’bah) that Muslims face praying.

Ramal: The ritual where male pilgrims are required to walk briskly with their chests thrust forward and with their shoulders rolling slightly during the first three circuits of Tawaf ul Qudoom. Ladies are not required to practice Ramal

The upper cloth of Ihram.

Rummy: The act of symbolically stoning the devil (shaitan) in Mina on the 10th through to the 13th of Zul Hijjah. This commemorates the tradition that Prophet Ibrahim (PBUH) was tempted three times by the devil but rejected all three of the devil’s attempts by stoning him and driving him away. These three locations are symbolized by three stone pillars (jamaraat) in Mina.

Safa: A small hillock approximately half a mile from the Kabah, inside Al-Masjid ul Haram. The pilgrim performs the act of Sai (or ‘running’) between Safa and Marwah.

Sai: The act of walking seven times back and forth between the rocky hillocks of Safa and Marwah. This act retraces the footsteps of Hajar (wife of Prophet Ibrahim), during her desperate search for water to quench the thirst of her infant son Ishmael after they were left in the desert by Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) in response to a divine vision.

Salat: Obligatory or supererogatory prayers.

Shawt: One complete circumambulation, or circuit, of the Kabah. Each shawt (pl. ashwaat) starts and ends at Hajar ul Aswad. Seven ashwaat constitute one Tawaf.

Talbiyah ra: A recital of the following words by the pilgrim during Umra and Hajj:
Labbaik Allah humma labbaik Labbaik la sharika laka labbaik Innal hamda Wan-ni’mata Laka walmulk Laa sharika lak. Meaning: O my Lord, here I am at Your service, here I am. There is no partner with You, here I am. Truly the praise and the provisions are Yours, and so is the dominion and sovereignty. There is no partner with You.